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Joint luxation occurs when one or multiple ligaments are injured or ruptured. Ligament injuries are classified into three degrees:

- 1st degree: minor overstretching of the ligament

- 2nd degree: partial tearing of the ligament

- 3rd degree: complete tearing or avulsion of the ligament

Severe ligament injuries lead to significant joint instability and bone luxation. This instability causes mechanical dysfunction during the weight-bearing phase on the leg, resulting in pain and lameness due to the load on a non-congruent surface.


The diagnosis is established through clinical examination, radiography, and joint manipulation under general anaesthesia. In some cases, radiography is performed to apply stress traction to the joint.


A mild ligament injury (grade 1) can be managed with painkillers and rest. However, surgical reconstruction is necessary for severe ligament injuries (grades 2 and 3).

The Surgery:

Early ligament repair is crucial to minimise irreversible cartilage changes. Repair techniques involving sutures or ligament reconstruction with anchor screws and synthetic ligaments can be employed to stabilise the joint.


Post-surgery aftercare involves exercise restriction for 6 to 8 weeks. Often, good limb function is observed after the surgery.

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